Neurons are the major functional cells of the nervous system. They receive and transmit environmental stimuli (sensory neurons), process this information (association neurons) and trigger a response via muscles, glands or other neurons (motor neurons). Neurons are named according to the arrangement of their processes: multipolar, pseudounipolar and bipolar.
Multipolar neuron >
Multipolar neurons are the most common neuron type and constitute the most structurally diverse group of neurons. Multipolar neurons have multiple dendrites and a single axon. They are found in both the central and peripheral subdivisions of the nervous system and perform associative and motor functions.
Pseudounipolar neuron >
Pseudounipolar neurons are found almost exclusively
in the peripheral nervous system, located in sensory ganglia of both cranial and spinal nerves. They have a single process exiting from the cell body that branches into two, with one process connecting with a peripheral receptor and the other extending into the central nervous system, conveying the sensory information.
Bipolar neuron >
Bipolar neurons, located in the peripheral nervous system, have two processes, a single dendrite leads into the cell body and a single axon leads away from the cell body. Bipolar neurons are located in ganglia and sensory structures that receive and relay information of special sense (audition, balance, vision and olfaction) into the central nervous system.